What is Valinomycin used for?

Valinomycin is a potent antibiotic. It is commonly used as an agent to induce apoptosis and can also be used to calibrate potentiometric responses in membrane experiments involving potential-sensitive dyes such as di-4-ANEPPS. For Research Use Only. Not for human or animal therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Valinomycin is highly selective for potassium ions over sodium ions within the cell membrane. It functions as a potassium-specific transporter and facilitates the movement of potassium ions through lipid membranes “down” the electrochemical potential gradient.

Similarly, how does an ionophore work? An ionophore is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions. Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across a cell membrane. Some ionophores are synthesized by microorganisms to import ions into their cells. Synthetic ion carriers have also been prepared.

Also to know is, how does Valinomycin affect cellular respiration?

mitochondria, eliminating respiratory control. Valinomycin produces higher steady state potassium phosphate swelling which can be reversed to give active shrinkage if mersalyl is added to block the Pi/OH antiporter. Respiration declines concurrently. Uncouplers accelerate the shrinkage and restore the respiration.

What is an ionophore antibiotic?

Ionophore. Ionophores (such as monensin) are antimicrobials fed to cattle to improve production efficiency that are unrelated to antibiotics used in human medicine. From: Advances in Microbial Food Safety, 2013.

How does gramicidin A work as an antibiotic?

Gramicidin is an antibiotic peptide synthesized by Bacillus brevis that destroys gram-positive bacteria [22, 23]. Unlike most AMPs, gramicidin forms a single ion channel instead of a pore in the membrane [23–28]. The latter is referred to as the “channel” form in which gA forms a single channel in model membranes.

How does Valinomycin affect ATP synthesis?

Valinomycin slows mitochondrial ATP synthesis without blocking electron transfer to O2 (Table 18-4). (b) Valinomycin combines reversibly with K+ ions to form a membrane-permeable complex that diffuses across the inner membrane and releases K+ on the inside.

Which features allow the KcsA channel to selectively transport K +?

Which features allow the KcsA channel to selectively transport K+? – It is attracted to the entrance of the channel via electrostatic interactions. – The “selectivity filter” involves a narrowing of the channel, allowing only dehydrated K+ access. – As K+ is transported through the channel it interacts with −C=O.

What is rumensin used for?

In the US, monensin (trade name “Rumensin”- manufactured by Elanco Animal Health) is a feed additive for cattle indicated “for improved feed efficiency, for increased rate of weight gain, and for the prevention and control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii”.

Is lasalocid an antibiotic?

Lasalocid is an antibacterial agent and a coccidiostat, which is produced by strains of Streptomyces lasaliensis. It is the drug in the feed additives called Bovatec and Avatec.

Why are ionophores toxic to horses?

Ionophores have a pharmacologic effect by changing the flux of certain electrolytes across cell membranes. The doses of ionophores normally used in feed for other animals can be highly toxic to horses. Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, and the neurologic system are affected by ionophore toxicity.

What are ionophores used for?

Ionophores are feed additives used in cattle diets to increase feed efficiency and body weight gain. They are compounds that alter rumen fermentation patterns. Ionophores can be fed to any class of cattle and can be used in any segment of the beef cattle industry.

Is monensin an antibiotic?

Monensin was the first ionophoric antibiotic approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Monensin A is an antibiotic which is used as coccidiostat and growth promoting agent in veterinary practice.

Is rumensin an antibiotic?

Rumensin® is an ionophore, which can be classified as an antibiotic, that is produced naturally by the bacteria strain (Strep cinnamonensis) and is typically fed as the sodium salt. Rumensin® functions by creating a shift in ion transfer across the cell’s membrane.

How does monensin work in cattle?

Monensin is an ionophore that increases overall energy yield from feed, and improves animal performance. It does this by reducing gram-positive bacteria that favour fibre fermentation in the rumen, thereby increasing gram-negative bacteria that favour starch fermentation, and altering the volatile fatty-acid profile.

What is monensin sodium?

Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.

What is lasalocid sodium?

Conditions of use. Lasalocid, a divalent polyether ionophore antibiotic, is produced by Streptomyces lasaliensis, and recommended as a medicinal feed additive for continuous use to control coccidiosis in. poultry species. It is a broad spectrum anticoccidial agent approved to protect against.

Is tetracycline an ionophore?

Tetracyclines are among the cheapest classes of antibiotics available and have been used extensively in prophylaxis and in treatment of human and animal infections, as well as at subtherapeutic levels in animal feed as growth promoters. Tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis in both bacterial and human cells.