What is exposure variable?

The exposure variable is the variable that you predict will have an effect on the outcome variable, so, during your study, you will alter the exposure variable to measure what changes occur in the outcome variable.

The exposure that varies among both cases and controls, i.e. the exposure status variable that is being tested to see if there is a link between it and the outcome of interest (Pancreatic Cancer), is a lifestyle variable—consumption of alcohol, tea, or coffee.

One may also ask, what is the difference between exposure and outcome? The term risk factor is often used to describe an exposure variable. The outcome of a study is a broad term for any defined disease, state of health, health-related event or death. The exposure of interest in one study may be the outcome in another.

In this regard, what is exposure in research?

In epidemiology, the term “exposure” can be broadly applied to any factor that may be associated with an outcome of interest. When using observational data sources, researchers often rely on readily available (existing) data elements to identify whether individuals have been exposed to a factor of interest.

How do you measure exposure?

Definition. Exposure assessment is the process of estimating or measuring the magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure to an agent, along with the number and characteristics of the population exposed. Ideally, it describes the sources, pathways, routes, and the uncertainties in the assessment.

How do you describe exposure?

Definition of exposure 1 : the fact or condition of being exposed: such as. a : the condition of being presented to view or made known a politician seeks a lot of exposure. b : the condition of being unprotected especially from severe weather died of exposure.

What is exposure period?

Exposure Period. Expressed in terms of a continuous variable, such as the time equipment is operating, or as a function of a discrete variable, such as the number of demands (also called cycles in some tests) imposed on a piece of equipment.

How do you identify a case control study?

First, identify the cases (a group known to have the outcome) and the controls (a group known to be free of the outcome). Then, look back in time to learn which subjects in each group had the exposure(s), comparing the frequency of the exposure in the case group to the control group.

What is the primary exposure of interest?

The primary exposure of interest is the one which is included in the hypothesis. A confounder is an alternative explanation for the outcome. In order to be a confounder, a factor has to be: associated with the exposure being investigated and independently associated with the risk of developing the outcome of interest.

When would you use a prospective cohort study?

Prospective Cohort Studies After baseline information is collected, subjects in a prospective cohort study are then followed “longitudinally,” i.e. over a period of time, usually for years, to determine if and when they become diseased and whether their exposure status changes.

How do you determine exposure and outcome?

The exposure refers to any characteristic that may explain or predict the presence of a study outcome. The outcome refers to the characteristic that is being predicted. A study investigates whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with the risk of future language delay in children.

What is an exposure group?

Definition of risk ratio Often, the group of primary interest is labeled the exposed group, and the comparison group is labeled the unexposed group.

How do you distinguish between a case control and a cohort study?

An important distinction lies between cohort studies and case-series. The distinguishing feature between these two types of studies is the presence of a control, or unexposed, group. Contrasting with epidemiological cohort studies, case-series are descriptive studies following one small group of subjects.

What is exposure in cohort study?

In a cohort study, a group of individuals exposed to a putative risk factor and a group who are unexposed to the risk factor are followed over time (often years) to determine the occurrence of disease. In a retrospective cohort study both the exposure and outcome have already occurred at the outset of the study.

What is health exposure?

Short-term exposure is called acute exposure. Long-term exposure is called chronic exposure. Either may cause health effects. Acute exposure is a short contact with a chemical. Chronic exposure is continuous or repeated contact with a toxic substance over a long period of time (months or years).

What does drug exposure mean?

Dr. Mehrotra: Exposure refers to drug levels achieved in the body. Response can be assessed in terms of either efficacy or safety. Understanding the relationship between exposure and response is critical to finding a dose that optimally strikes a balance between drug efficacy and adverse events.

What is a cohort study in research?

Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease and to establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. The word cohort means a group of people. Prospective” studies are planned in advance and carried out over a future period of time.

What is the exposure in a cross sectional study?

The cross-sectional study is an observational study that assesses exposure and the outcome at one specific point in time in a sample population. There is no prospective or retrospective follow-up. Both the RR and the OR can be calculated to describe the association between the exposure and the outcome.

What is the relationship between exposure and outcome?

If individuals with a given exposure are found to have a greater probability of developing a particular outcome, it suggests an association, and, conversely, if the groups have the same probability of developing the outcome regardless of their exposure status, it suggests that particular exposure is not associated with